There’s a lot to think about when planning your big day—no matter where your wedding date falls on the calendar. But if it happens to be in the midst of the coronavirus crisis, you might be wondering what you should do—if anything—to prepare and plan for the potential that your wedding may be affected.
Right now, whether you’re planning a wedding at home or abroad, there are countless moving parts surrounding COVID-19—and since this situation is fluid, what it means for your wedding, specifically, really depends on your wedding date, guest count, location, and extent of travel involved.
Meet the Expert
- JoAnn Gregoli is the founder of Elegant Occasions by JoAnn Gregoli in New York City.
- Alison Laesser-Keck is an event producer and creative director at Alison Bryan Destinations in Santa Barbara, California. She and her husband and business partner, Bryan, specialize in destination wedding planning.
- Aleah Valley is the co-founder of Valley & Company Events in Seattle. She and her husband, Nick, have been planning weddings for 17 years. In 2018, they published their first book, Storied Weddings: Inspiration for a Timeless Celebration That Is Perfectly You.
- Eva Clark of Eva Clark Events is a wedding planner based in Atlanta. With 17 years of experience, she has planned more than 500 weddings domestically and abroad.
However, at this point, it’s safe to say that any wedding in 2020 will look differently, whether it’s allowed to happen on a smaller scale right now or as you’d dreamed later on. “The truth is that the coronavirus has disrupted the wedding industry,” says planner JoAnn Gregoli of Elegant Occasions by JoAnn Gregoli.
Your day will come, and trust us when we say it will be the most amazing thing. When we can all come together and celebrate, there will be nothing else like it.
To help you prepare for what you should do—and help if you do, sadly, have to change plans—we spoke with experts across the industry, including travel consultants and wedding planners, to give you a closer look at how COVID-19 is affecting wedding planning right now, and how to prep for the coming months. Their overall advice? Be prepared, follow the news closely, and maintain an open conversation with your vendors and guests. “Also, if you can, book a planner so they can help you navigate this crazy industry and offer up options,” Gregoli advises. “Whenever there is a problem, there is always a solution to the problem.”
And, no matter your situation, it’s important to keep your eye on the end goal. “As always, take care of yourself. Honestly, it’s OK to cry. It’s OK to be angry or to feel a wide range of emotions,” says Alison Laesser-Keck of Alison Bryan Destinations. “One thing we like to tell our clients is that it’s not a matter of if, just a matter of when. Your day will come, and trust us when we say it will be the most amazing thing. When we can all come together and celebrate, there will be nothing else like it.”
Below, what you need to know about coronavirus and wedding planning, based on when and where you’re saying “I do.”
If Your Wedding Is Planned in the U.S. This Summer
“If you are slated to marry this May or June and even into July, we strongly recommend you have a discussion with your family and closest friends about the effects of COVID-19 on them and travel and safety for the wedding,” says Aleah Valley of Valley & Company Events. “We have moved all of our summer events to this fall or winter as we anticipate in our state, Washington, gatherings of over 50 won’t be allowed until August.”
In addition to moving weddings through July, Valley says she and her partner, Nick, are advising all of their 2020 couples to talk to their families and vendor teams early to develop a Plan B. “Even if a state allows gathering, think about how many guests can travel or wouldn’t be comfortable traveling,” she says. “This question has helped several of our couples calmly move their dates out—they want as many guests as possible to be able to celebrate with them safely.”
Laesser-Keck and her partner, Bryan, feel similarly and have officially moved their August destination weddings in cases where guests are traveling for them. They are also developing a Plan B back-up date for August weddings where the majority of guests are local, as well as for all September weddings. “Not every venue will allow you to do this, but if a venue will, you should jump on it! If you wait too long, you might not be able to get married in 2021, as many venues are already booked and the demand is so high,” she says.
Rules and regulations vary by state, and sometimes by county, so it’s important to stay informed with the latest guidelines in your wedding location, as well as where your guests will be traveling from.
Eva Clark of Eva Clark Events is doing the same—though, she notes that the amount of flexibility can depend on your venue. “Many venues, especially ones that also act as food and beverage, are not allowing any changes now, but are open to evaluating one-to-two months out based on where things stand at the time,” she says.
What to Do If You’ve Decided to Postpone
Whether you’re forced to postpone or decide to out of precaution, it’s important to remember that you do have options, and your team—and family, friends, and us!—will be there to guide you through the process of postponing your event. “As planners, we want this to happen for you. You deserve to celebrate,” says Valley. “Let’s just shift the date to make that happen.”
To help you navigate that process, see our complete step-by-step guide to postponing a wedding here. Want the short version? Get started with the below.
- Hire a Planner: “If you don’t have a planner, enlist the help of an expert with some one-on-one consulting,” Clark recommends. “Many planners offer this on an a-la-carte basis. Some will offer it out of the goodness of their hearts.”
- Review Your Contracts: While Clark says to start with this step as a couple—to understand your options and investment—she doesn’t mean to lead with paperwork when discussing with vendors. “Don’t lead with them when it comes to negotiating a postponement or cancelation with your venue and vendors,” she says. “Vendors are far more likely to work with you on a postponement than a cancelation. Start the conversation softly and avoid obtuse language.”
- Decide on a New Date: This step involves two layers—speaking with your immediate family and VIP guests and your vendors. “Work your way down from the most expensive vendor to the least in search of your new date,” Clark advises. “I recommend focusing on a season, versus a day or month, in order to garner the best results.” Also, before confirming the new date, she recommends having 80 to 100 percent of your vendors confirmed. Why? “If you are able to get all but your hair and makeup artist on board, it is probably best to lose that $500 deposit and reserve the date that you want the most,” she says.
- Expect Extra Fees: Be prepared to pay extra fees or lose a portion of your investment. “As this pandemic continues to affect all aspects of our economy, venues and vendors will likely become more rigid in their policies,” Clark says.
- Move Quickly: It’s no secret that time is of the essence right now. “Be prepared to move quickly,” she says. “Other clients are your competition here as so many are in the same boat. This requires flexibility and optimism!”
Oh, and if you decide to postpone until 2021, Laesser-Keck adds, “Make any important decisions as soon as you can and then take a nice long planning break!”
What to Do If You’re Considering a Postponement
When considering the right time to officially make the call, Laesser-Keck admits that there are a lot of variables to keep in mind. “Every situation is different, but generally speaking, to allow for a process with far less stress, we are recommending that the decision be made approximately three to five months out,” she says, meaning if your wedding is scheduled through the summer, it’s likely in your best interest to plan for a postponement.
While that timing may be ideal, it also may not be possible for you depending on the flexibility of your vendors. For example, while Clark was able to reschedule her spring weddings to prime dates in 2021, she recognizes that the circumstances—for couples, vendors, and the world—have now changed. “Some of my couples have been able to postpone without losing much of their investment, while others are kind of stuck in a holding pattern based on how far their wedding is,” she says. “Some of my peers feel that we won’t return to ‘normal events’ until summer 2021. None of us have a crystal ball, so the next steps are rock-hard to navigate.”
In order to make the decision that is best for you, your wedding, and the safety of all of your guests, consider taking the below steps.
- Consult With Your Team: First, Valley encourages couples to speak with your entire creative team in the same swoop—your wedding planner, the venue, catering team, musicians, video and photography team, basically anyone involved in the day. “Get a pulse on a potential back-up plan and have alternate dates in place sooner in case regulations or your outlook shifts,” she says. “The goal is to have all of your loved ones safely attend your big day so everyone can celebrate you. Try to think about changing a date as just that—picking up your wedding and simply moving it to a date that feels good for everyone involved so everyone can safely celebrate.”
- Recognize Your Priorities: “When we postpone a wedding, we are first and foremost determining if the venue and hotels can accommodate the new date, and after that, we’re reaching out to all vendors simultaneously to see if they can do the same,” Laesser-Keck says. “Chances are slim that your entire plan and team will be able to be carried over without any changes, and you’ll have to consider any extra fees that may be associated when determining whether to postpone later in 2020 or move to 2021, but in general you’re aiming for the least amount of changes and financial impact as possible.”
- Determine Non-Negotiatables: Speak with your partner and consider what your non-negotiables are, and how they will influence your ultimate decision. For example, are you willing to scale back from a ballroom wedding with 250 guests to a backyard wedding with 50 guests? Are you okay with not being able to hug your guests or dance close to them? Is it imperative that any elderly people attend your wedding, such as your grandmother?
- Consider Your Guests: “Where your guests are traveling from is definitely a huge factor,” says Laesser-Keck. “Just like the availability of your venue, if your guests have made travel plans, you need to think about how much time they’ll need to make adjustments.” If your guests are primarily local, she says you can likely make your final decision closer to three months out but says it’s important to keep in mind that invitations should really be sent at three months to allow for an RSVP deadline of eight weeks before the wedding date. “We always recommend eight weeks to allow for seamless production (availability of décor, the printing of day-of materials, sourcing of welcome gifts, et cetera),” she says.
In terms of a postpone-by date, the sooner the better. With so many 2020 weddings moving—plus, new quarantine proposals—we recommend acting swiftly so you can secure a new date, and inform your guests and team accordingly.
If Your Wedding Is Planned in the U.S. This Fall
Whether your wedding is affected by COVID-19 is really up in the air right now, depending on when and where it’s planned. “For weddings in fall, we all have a little more time, but keep in mind that it all depends on whether or not guests are traveling for your wedding, as well as your venue’s availability to accommodate a postponement,” adds Laesser-Keck.
Right now, it’s important to stay informed and make educated decisions as more (reliable) news becomes available. “It’s a waiting game right now,” she says. “Things are changing day by day and week by week. Don’t do anything drastic before you have a chance to be properly informed.” At this time, our experts say they are a few weeks away from making the final decisions about fall weddings. “Right now is this weird time where wedding plans are either moving lightning fast or we’re all incapable of making any decisions whatsoever,” Laesser-Keck admits. “The best thing you can do is create a roadmap of options so that once more info comes in, you can make quick and informed decisions.”
How to (Cautiously) Prepare Ahead of Time
In order to make a decision when the time comes, go ahead and have a serious discussion with your team to decide the best plan of action moving forward. It doesn’t hurt to know what your options may be if the current regulations are extended to include your wedding date—so speak to your planner, if you have one, and if not, call your venue to see what your options might be.
- Talk to Your Venue: “If you’ve booked a popular wedding venue that does 52 weddings a year, you might not be able to get in any sooner than a year out if you wait too long to decide—unless of course, you choose another day of the week,” says Laesser-Keck. “With that said, some venues won’t even discuss postponement with you too far in advance because they have to allow spring 2020 weddings to postpone first.” Moral of the story? Talk to your venue and be transparent about what your concerns are so that you have a support system and can be ready to make the leap when the time is right.
- Speak With Your Vendors: “Sometimes it’s best to get it out of your system and think of the worst scenarios so you can prepare and come up with a game plan,” says Daniela VillaRamos, officiant and owner of Once Upon a Vow in Brooklyn, New York. “Ask vendors about solutions should you need to postpone your event if you and/or your partner get diagnosed with COVID-19.” If you’ve already signed contracts with wedding vendors (we hope you did!), it’s smart to go ahead and have a sit-down discussion with your wedding vendors, such as your photographer. “Sit down and revisit their contract to what might happen if they need to cancel or postpone their wedding,” advises Michael T Davis, a wedding photographer in Central Pennsylvania. “You should have a transparent and honest conversation about your anxieties with all of the vendors on the topic of sanitization and what vendors are doing to keep themselves and their wedding party/guests safe.”
- Keep Everyone in the Loop: To avoid having to constantly field questions from family members and wedding guests, Marlie R. Vodofsky, owner of Marlie Renee Designs, in Jersey City, New Jersey, suggests proactively adding a blurb to your wedding website acknowledging the coronavirus, and letting guests know you will keep them in the loop should any plans change. “You can also go as far as adding a link to the CDC website in the ‘travel and accommodations’ section of your wedding website so guests can quickly access up-to-date and accurate information as well,” she adds.
- Be Considerate of Your Guests: To that point, Laesser-Keck emphasizes how important it is to account for your guests’ health, time, and finances at this time. “Really be considerate of your guests, and try to give yourself a deadline to make a decision that allows for their comfort and peace of mind,” she advises. “Just as on the day of the wedding, you want them to feel taken care of, so giving them extra time to make adjustments or cancellations to their travel will be greatly appreciated.”
If Your Wedding Is Planned Internationally in 2020
Due to travel restrictions and the amount of travel associated with destination weddings abroad, Valley says that having a backup plan is imperative to couples, their families, and their creative teams. “We don’t know when international flights will be allowed again and, though we hope that’s soon, time will tell,” she says. “We hope that our creative partners and friends in Europe and other international destinations will come out of the pandemic strong and ready to celebrate, but we just don’t know what that timetable looks like right now.”
What Are Your Options?
Gregoli says those in this boat basically have two choices: “You should consider postponing the wedding or moving the destination entirely,” she says.
- Postponing in Your Original Destination: “For our clients getting married in any areas where they’ve requested you limit travel to in 2020, we are working out deals with our suppliers where they can potentially postpone if they have to,” says Laesser-Keck, who is currently planning several weddings in Italy. “We have been through a few ‘natural disasters’ at this point, and we know that if a venue can’t fulfill its contract, you are OK there in that you can likely change venues, but you want to try to see if the vendors you’re hiring would be open to changing the date or location (based on their availability) if a crisis situation requires it.” When rescheduling a destination wedding, you’ll also have to account for a change in guest accommodations, so Laesser-Keck recommends asking yourself: “Have you signed hotel contracts and, if so, will they allow you to postpone all rooms to another date? What other events are happening in the area you’re getting married that weekend? Will the rates stay the same?”
- Choosing a New Domestic Location: “To be prepared, consider an amazing domestic location as a back-up for a weekend or week-long wedding getaway in the U.S.,” Valley suggests. “The majestic islands in Washington State are breathtaking, San Diego’s beaches are incredible, Napa Valley is filled with rolling hills and grapevines, upstate New York is so pastoral and serene, and New England in the fall is just stunning—all beautiful locations that could be a spectacular substitute to your original ideas.” Also on her list? “A location that means something to you both, or to your families that you maybe didn’t think of before, like the lake house you were engaged at or the mountains where you grew up hiking with your family, or the coast where you vacation with your friends each summer,” she says. While having a domestic wedding might look different, you can still roll with the same vision for having an extended weekend and get your guests excited. Valley adds, “It might open up more guests who weren’t able to make the international trip before.”
What to Do If You (or Your Guests) Are Booking Travel
Whether you’re booking honeymoon travel or asking guests to travel for the big day, weddings involve some degree of travel. Knowing this, it’s important to understand travel options for both you and your guests in the coming months.
- Understand Cancellation Policies: First and foremost, anyone with travel arrangements should check the CDC’s and WHO’s websites daily and ask their own doctor for recommendations, advises Lesley Cohen, a luxury travel advisor at SmartFlyer. Beyond this, she is advising that her clients calendar their cancellation deadlines to make a decision at the point when they might lose a deposit (or more) rather than making an immediate decision when it might not be required and might not make any difference financially. “If you want to make changes check with the hotels or cruise partners on potential waivers or flexible policies that will allow them to move dates without an additional cost,” she suggests.
- Consider CFAR Insurance: If your honeymoon or travel plans are beyond this spring, she highly recommends going forward with plans. “Book the places you want to go but book flexible cancellation policies if you are concerned and consider Cancel For Any Reason travel insurance,” she says. Laesser-Keck agrees. “If you’re still worried, get CFAR insurance,” she says. “Go with your gut!”
If You’re Continuing to Plan a Wedding in 2020
Whether your wedding is set for later this year in the U.S. or you’re planning to host a more intimate affair at home in the meantime, it’s likely that it will look different as a result of COVID-19. “All considered, I am now telling all my clients that if you proceed with your 2020 wedding, you must be prepared to adjust your expectations,” explains Clark. “In other words, in addition to a reduced guest count, you will likely need to implement safety precautions such as thermometer scans, masks, sanitizing stations, and, possibly, waivers for guests to sign. Letting guests know that you are taking these precautions, on your wedding website, will give them some confidence. Even so, know that some just won’t attend.”
In addition to the above advice, we recommend taking the following measures when saying “I do” at this time.
- Follow CDC Guidelines: If you have your date and venue set, pay attention to what the experts (CDC) are saying and heeding their advice, suggests Trip Wheeler, president of SB Value, a company that buys food for caterers, concessionaires, and culinary professionals. “Pay close attention to what venues are allowed to do and how they can make sure their guests are safe,” he says. “Yes, it’s your wedding, the most important day in your life, but the last thing you want in your celebration is to make a lot of people sick.”
- Expect a Smaller Guest Count: It’s important to be aware of your guests’ travel plans, and understand if some guests choose not to attend the wedding or any pre-wedding event. “Guest counts may drop due to the fear of flying,” Gregoli says. “I would recommend that you lower some of your guest counts, as you may not get as many people as you thought in the first place.”
- Consider F&B Minimums: According to Heather Jones, the catering sales director of Wente Vineyards, in Livermore, California, couples are having a more difficult time meeting their food and beverage minimum due to lower guest counts. “Couples have guests that are unable to obtain visas to travel, air flights canceled or domestic guests that are concerned about traveling,” she says. “If you’re booking a venue or catering for an upcoming wedding or event, make sure you understand their policies. “When can you cancel, what are the fees, and do you have options to make up any missing food and beverage minimums?” she says. Additionally, if you’ve had to change your date, Clark recommends taking this account before signing any new documentation. “When you sign your contract addendums (or new contracts) see if your venue/caterer is willing to lower their food and beverage minimum for your event,” she advises. “This will help protect your investment should you face a drop in the guest count even after a postponement.”
- Keep Guests Informed: For anyone who has already sent out invitations, Laesser-Keck recommends sending guests a quick note and updating your website with any new information, or a simply a message that lets guests know you’re monitoring the situation. If you haven’t gone to print on invitations, and if you can, she recommends asking your stationer about the option of paying for rush printing so you can hold off on printing until the very last second. “Make sure you’re designing your invitations with a line item that requests your guests’ email addresses and make sure to direct them to a website for any updated information,” she advises. “Being able to easily be in touch with your guests right now is key!” Another tip? “We’re also recommending modifying designs with less time-consuming print material methods—flat printing versus letterpress as an example—and doing online RSVPs, whenever possible, for ease and reliability,” she says.
- Design With What’s Available: The current climate may hinder your florist’s ability to deliver fresh flowers, depending on where they are sourced. “Our flowers are shipped primarily from portions of the world that are not currently experiencing the coronavirus outbreak, like Holland, Ecuador, and South America, but we do not know what the next few months will bring,” says Christy “CeCe” Todd of CeCe Designs and Events in Birmingham, Alabama. That said, many of the hardgoods that florists use for décor, such as vases and silk flowers for large installations, are likely to be impacted by the virus, she notes. So, if you’re already working with a floral designer, consider discussing backup plans and select a design that does not require the purchase of new products to produce the desired look for your special day.
- Source Local Goods: When sourcing favors and items for welcome bags, consider working with what’s available to you—and supporting small businesses! “I would suggest looking for local wonderful favors that are produced here,” Gregoli says.
- Practice Extra Hygiene: “For now, we’re following the CDC guidelines of basic human hygiene, which means washing our hands and/or using hand sanitizer every time we shake hands, touch elevator buttons, open a door, jump on the train, etc. and avoiding touching our faces especially when we’re in public places,” says VillaRamos. Jones reiterates this point. “We’re taking extra precaution to ask that staff members showing signs of illness stay home and to place hand sanitizers at entrances to buffets, food stations, and rooms,” she says.
- Consider a Virtual Wedding: For elderly guests or those who choose not to travel, Davis suggests considering a live stream of your wedding. “With today’s technology, it’s quite easy to set something up on social media accounts by going live,” he says. To help, some states have even made Zoom weddings legal. Check out our ultimate guide to throwing a virtual wedding below.
When mailing out invitations and/or save the date cards, include a line requesting your guests’ email addresses. That way, you can get in touch with everyone quickly if plans change. Also, be sure to keep your wedding website up-to-date.
If You’re Waiting on (or Shopping for) a Dress
Whether you’re waiting on a dress, planning to start the dress search, or needing to find a new style thanks to a wedding date change (hello winter brides!), your search will likely look different at this time. That said, that doesn’t mean you don’t have options!
What to Do If You’ve Ordered a Dress
According to the American Bridal and Prom Industry Association, 80 percent of bridal gowns are manufactured in China, as well as other overseas destinations. For this reason, salons who are awaiting the shipment of such dresses are backed up, says Gregoli. Local salons, however, whose designers are mostly based in the U.S., are not experiencing such delays. Alison Kent, bridal manager of Spring Sweet Bridal Salon in Holland, Michigan, says that the designers her team has been working with are being very communicative with ship times and updates. “They’re prioritizing brides that have weddings coming up, which is hugely helpful, however, ship dates are being pushed back to about 20 weeks instead of 14—and that’s changing weekly,” she says. If you’re just beginning to shop, consider one of the below options. “If the gowns are disrupted and you cannot get them in time, consider buying off the rack gowns with everyone possibly picking a different type of dress,” Gregoli adds. Kent also recommends calling your local bridal salon to see what they have. “There’s really a ‘we’re-all-in-this-together’ mentality so we want to make sure that all brides are taken care of and can wear a beautiful dress if not the dress of their dreams,” she says.
What to Do If You’re Ready to Shop
Thanks to stay-at-home orders, you’re likely not able to have the traditional salon experience. That said, many bridal brands and retailers have adapted their practices so you don’t have to wait to find the one. Below, your options.
- Do a Virtual Try-On: Many bridal brands and designers have begun using Zoom and Facetime to connect face-to-face with brides and to create an at-home bridal salon experience through services like virtual appointments and one-on-one styling sessions conducted over video. If you want to physically touch and try on your dress before making the big decision, some brands even offer programs that ship wedding gown and bridesmaid dress samples straight to your door. See a list of brands offering virtual sessions here.
- Shop Online: Online shopping is still safe at this time! Check out the best sites to shop for a wedding dress here.
- Order Ahead: If you’re looking to order a bridal gown and/or bridesmaid dresses from a traditional salon or retailor, Gregoli suggests doubling the lead time on purchasing gowns. If the average recommended lead time is 8 to 12 weeks prior to the wedding, consider doing so between 16 and 24 weeks ahead of time.
If You’re Planning a Wedding in 2021
If you’re just starting to dive into planning, it’s natural to have a million “what if” questions about the future. While all of this is uncertain, we hope this news won’t cripple you or take away from the excitement that comes with wedding planning. “Be really, really excited!” Valley advises. “This is the moment you’ve been waiting for, and while the landscape of the world might look different right now, your loved ones are going to be so excited to hug and celebrate you when your wedding comes.” For this reason, we say take note of the above, and consider the below as you (hopefully) continue to plan in the wake of coronavirus.
- Get Started Now: “Honestly, don’t even consider 2020 unless you’re already locked in and have professionals helping you through this. We really don’t think it’s worth taking on that uncertainty and amount of stress,” advises Laesser-Keck. “If you’re set on 2021, and particularly spring 2021, you’ll definitely need to move fast! There’s competition from 2020 couples who are postponing, so we’re seeing dates and venues starting to go quickly.”
- Hire Your Vendor Team: “Your creative vendors are all itching to create and celebrate couples,” Valley admits. “Share the good news and focus on things you can actively plan right now: choosing the right date, hiring your creative team, daydreaming how your story will look and feel, listening to music for your playlist, and dreaming up fun cocktails to serve.”
- Make a Vision Board: Valley recommends creating a Pinterest board that is more real-life geared: “One that focuses on food styling you love, pretty cocktails, flowers seen in nature, architecture, and landscapes,” she describes. “Use this real-life inspiration to develop the ideal design plan for your big day and share it with your developing team.”
- Follow Positive Accounts on Social Media: In a time of such uncertainty, Valley also recommends following accounts (like @brides!) for helpful planning tips. “So many top planners, floral designers, dress shops, and venues are making it a mission to share happiness and positive planning tips,” she says.
- Be Flexible: “This will be a year when flexibility is key, not only with date and location but also guest count,” admits Laesser-Keck. “We’ll basically be combining two seasons into one, and I know every other venue and vendor out there will be doing the same, so giving yourself as many options as possible is really important.”
To end, Valley shares a final piece of advice for all planning or affected by the current coronavirus crisis. “The goal of a wedding is to celebrate the couple and their love story with their loved ones and families. We encourage couples to plan full steam ahead, to continue to be inspired and seek out inspiration, and to also share their story,” she says. “As soon as we’re all able to gather, you know that your wedding is going to be feted and celebrated like crazy! Be ready for that moment and have your plans in place to have the best wedding ever!”
The current outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by The World Health Organization. As the situation remains fluid, we’ll be sharing tips and stories from industry experts and couples who are experiencing cancellations to give you the most up to date advice on how this can impact your wedding.